Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA)
Escrow Account Protections and Limits (Section 10)


Section 10 of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) provides protections for borrowers with escrow accounts. Specifically, it limits the amount of money that a lender may require the borrower to hold in an escrow account for paying taxes, hazard insurance and other charges related to the property. RESPA also requires the lender to provide initial and annual escrow account statements.

Each month the lender may require a borrower to pay into the escrow account no more than 1/12 of the total of all disbursements payable during the year, plus an amount necessary to pay for any shortage in the account. In addition, the lender may require a cushion, limited to no more than 1/6 of the total disbursements for the year.

The lender must perform an escrow account analysis once during the year and notify borrowers of any shortage. Any excess of $50 or more must be returned to the borrower.

It is the lender's decision whether the borrower must maintain an escrow account for the purpose of paying taxes and other items (also, certain government loan programs or lenders may require escrow accounts as a condition of the loan). The HUD regulations only limit the maximum amount that a lender can require a borrower to maintain in an account.

The RESPA statute and regulations do not require the lender to maintain a cushion. However, since 1976 the RESPA statute has allowed lenders to maintain a cushion equal to one-sixth of the total amount of items paid out of the account, or approximately two months of escrow payments. If state law or mortgage documents allow for a lesser amount, the lesser amount prevails.

The new accounting method generally requires borrowers to maintain lesser amount in the account than the single-item method predominately used by lenders. However, many lenders have recently increased the escrow account cushion to the maximum allowed by law.

The recent regulations require lenders to reduce the size of the cushion in some accounts. Unfortunately, to avoid customer disapproval, some lenders may be giving their customers the impression that the HUD regulations require them to make this increase. This is a false impression. The lender, not HUD, has chosen to increase the cushion.

In 1992 and 1993, legislation was introduced in Congress that would have required lenders to pay interest on escrow account balances, but it never passed. Some states do require interest to be paid on escrow account funds, but many do not.

If you calculated the maximum amount RESPA allows to be required in your escrow account from our example, and you still believe your lender is requiring too much money, you should contact your lender for an explanation.

Section 6 of RESPA provides that borrowers may make a "qualified written request" to the lender concerning the servicing of their loan account. The request should not be included with the monthly mortgage payment. The lender must acknowledge the complaint within 20 business days and must resolve the complaint within 60 business days by correcting the account or giving a statement of the reasons for its position. If you do not get a satisfactory answer from the lender, you may wish to file a complaint with HUD. You should continue to make your mortgage payment during this time.

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